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Andy Warhol ( Pittsburgh , August 6 1928 - New York City , February 22 1987 ) was an American artist , film director and author . Warhol also worked as a music producer and actor .From his background and experience in applied art Warhol was one of the protagonists of pop art in the United States in the 50s and 60s of the 20th century. Warhol is also called the silver prince of the doll named.

Warhol is most famous for his 'flat' and contrasting paintings and serigraphs of packaged products and everyday objects such as Campbell's soup cans, flowers and banana on the cover of the album The Velvet Underground & Nico (1967), as well as for his stylized portraits of 20th-century celebrities like Marilyn Monroe , Grace Jones . Elvis Presley , Judy Garland , andElizabeth Taylor .

[1][2]Andy Warhol in 1977


 [ hide ] *1 Biography

Biography edit ]Edit

Andy Warhol was as Andrew Warhola was born in Pittsburgh ( United States ). His parents were Ondrej (Andrew) Warhola and Julia Justyna Zavacká, Ruthenian immigrants from the village Míková in today's Slovakia . Ondrej (whose family originally Varhola was written, he changed the spelling to Warhola when he emigrated to the U.S.) worked in the coal mines of Pennsylvania. Andy showed early artistic talent and applied art went to study in Pittsburgh at the Carnegie Institute of Technology , the present Carnegie Mellon University . There he fell in with the signing of two self-portraits in which he was picking his nose to the ( Upper Torso Boy Picking Nose and Full Figure Boy Picking Nose ).

In 1949, Warhol moved to New York , where he built a modest career in advertising and magazine world.

The sixties in the Factory edit ]Edit

In the sixties Warhol started painting of famous American products in large format as Campbell's soup cans and Coca-Cola bottles. He knew the influential gallery owner and art collector Leo Castelli to be interested in his work. He went into the screen printing technique used, not to make mere art with everyday commercial mass products as a motive, but to even create. his own art as a mass product Warhol wanted more than an emotionless machine. He introduced himself as head of a team of art workers who were engaged in making silkscreens, films, books and magazines.This team worked in a studio near Union Square in New York. The studio was the Factory named because there is a production of paintings was actually housed. This studio became a gathering place for artists, gay men, transvestites, junkies and fashion models. Anyone with any artistic pretense was welcome.

The original factory was located in an old hat factory at 231 East 47th Street (fourth floor). After several years Andy Warhol moved his entourage to an office building across the street, 33 Union Street West (sixth floor). This second factory was Warhol himself the Office named because there was not only a studio located but also the editors of the magazine founded by Warhol Interview .Warhol became famous worldwide in the years of the factory with his silkscreens. He made ​​silkscreen prints of each subject that is before lent.

Warhol's work relies largely on American popular culture. He painted and drew banknotes, strip images , food, woman shoes, celebrities and everyday objects. For him, these motifs represent the American cultural values.

Shooting Edit ]Edit

On June 3, 1968 was Valerie Solanas , a radical feminist author who showed up in the studio to time hanging out at the Factory, time and shot Warhol and Mario Amaya down. Solanas was rejected earlier that day in the factory after ascript had reclaimed that she had given to Warhol for inspection. The script was apparently lost. Warhol was seriously wounded by the shooting and was even declared clinically dead at the hospital. He suffered for the rest of his life to the physical consequences of the attack. Thus, for example, he was still wearing a corset to support. His abdomen The shooting had a big aftereffect on Warhol's life and art. The Factory was stricter shielded and for many this event marked the end of the turbulent years of the factory. That same day Solanas gave himself up to the police and she was arrested. Her explanation for this crime was that Warhol had been given. Too much influence on her life

The seventies edit ]Edit

In comparison with Warhol provocative work in the sixties, the seventies were artistically less productive, although Warhol was much more businesslike. According to his former assistant Bob Colacello Warhol sought in those years mainly to wealthy people with whom he could drag a portrait on hold as Mick Jagger , Liza Minnelli , John Lennon , Diana Ross , Brigitte Bardot , and Michael Jackson , and less well-known bank managers and collectors. He founded the magazine Interview , and in 1975 published his book The Philosophy of Andy Warhol , which he explained was doing his sober ideas about art and life. Of him the following statements is known: "Making money is art work is art and good business is the best art."

Death and legacy edit ]Edit

Warhol died on February 22, 1987 at 6:32 pm at the age of 58 in New York City. He was recovering from a routine operation on his gall bladder when he died in his sleep of a heart attack . The hospital staff had given him after surgery sedatives and had his well-being insufficiently applied. Therefore lawyers Warhols survivors complained the hospital for negligence. Warhol had medical treatment constantly postponed because he was afraid of hospitals and large hated doctors.

Warhol was buried in the Catholic cemetery of St. John the Baptist Byzantine in Bethel Park , south of Pittsburgh. Yoko Ono was one of the people who spoke a farewell speech at his funeral. The international auction house Sotheby'sneeded to auction. Warhol's vast collection of art and "odds and ends" nine days The gross proceeds of this auction was about 20 million U.S. dollars.

Work edit ]Edit

Paintings edit ]Edit

[3][4]Shop with articles on one of the themes of Warhol inspired

Warhol had already built a reputation as a commercial illustrator , especially for shoe stores, when he decided to start a career. as an artist He was urged on by, among other Emile de Antonio , who thought he had better ideas than many of his contemporaries.

At school he had made paintings, but then he was mostly illustrations with drawing ink, among other stores and magazines. By tracing his subjects in ink and print them on watercolor paper, he made several variations on his themes. As an illustrator, he felt not taken seriously enough, and he wanted to be an artist.

When Warhol began painting again, he chose a different approach. He began painting with closed shutters, and always the same single on his record. At that time it was pop , as the name would already emerging later. Warhol mounted this new style, in which everyday objects were part of the repertoire of the artist. Portion All is pretty (everything is fine) was taking his motto. His first works show images to newspaper ads for corsets, cola, corn plasters and vacuum cleaners. Later he began with images from comics, like Superman , Popeye and Dick Tracy .

These early works were painted with hand verfdruipers intentionally applied. The drippings made ​​to the currently popular style of abstract expressionism , for example, by Jackson Pollockand Willem de Kooning was applied. He wanted to 'belong' and be successful. After the first handmade paintings he soon began with the more distant screen prints on canvas which he became famous.

Strips, typography and the like, however, were already used by artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Jasper Johns , Warhol sought subject a personal characteristic that would distinguish him from the others. An interior designer, Muriel Latow suggested to him that he would paint he loved the most. things At first he called "money". When she told him to paint what people recognize, a little canned soup for example, Warhol took this literally, as he often did, and his first major exhibition he painted his famous Campbell's soup cans. He painted all thirty-two varieties of Campbell soup. The cans differ only in the title of the soup (like Chicken or Cream of Asparagus). Warhol loved money and therefore painted banknotes. He adored celebrities (and celebrity aspireerde), so he painted them.

[5][6]Campbell's soup cans

The soup was Warhol paintings not exhibited in New York, but Irving Blum , who had a gallery in Los Angeles wanted to be exhibiting. Some spectators were angry, others burst out laughing. Another gallery owner Blum in the street, put the soup cans in the window and sold them for 20 cents.

From the soup can paintings Warhol developed his later style. He replaced the painting of a typical subject by painting as a distinctive style, which hit the hand slowly in the background.Warhol went variants of the silkscreen technique applied and became more and more the creator of paintings of the painter who holds the brush. At the height of his fame, he had several assistants, who according to his instructions screenprints produced in different variations in terms of color and dimensions. His chief assistant was Gerard Malanga , who was somewhat worried that Warhol wanted to seduce him.

Warhol made both "humorous" (as the soup cans) as 'serious' (the electric chair) work. Typical of his work is his cool detachment, allowing the viewer to interpret what the 'real Andy' thinks itself. The artist is shocked by death or he thinks it's funny? His images of soup cans a message about the cheapness of mass culture, a joke about art collectors who want to have the paintings and they have to deal with his genuine love for his mother, who in his youth Campbell's soup made for him?

Warhol's art became more and more conceptual . His series of Do-It-Yourself -paintings and canvases in the shape of the spots on a Rorschach test are intended as popular commentary on art and what art could be. His wallpaper with cowmotif and his oxidation paintings (canvases prepared with copper paint which oxidized urine stains are shown) also belong to this context. Importantly, how they work and how they were produced, the customs and atmosphere of Warhol's Factory reflected.

There was speculation that Warhol just released images of objects that are hip and modern in his time were only for Warhol was always a personal relationship between him and his subjects. The Campbell's Soup cans, as an example, functioned not only as an illustration of the commercial industry and publicity, but also made ​​an inherent part of Warhol's life and memories. As a child he got this soup from his mother when he was sick and he kept still always as an adult. For him (and for many Americans) represented the soup a home feeling.

Another criterion for Warhol's subject matter was that the subjects had to represent a certain philosophical notion and metaphorical quality should contain. When Warhol painted money that was because he wanted to have that - canvases full of money. He made his work partly for the money (and success, fame and maybe even love) to spend. At the same time these paintings considered art as a commercial product: the paintings of dollar bills raised both monetary value and investment. In this way, the paintings were rather merely notes to propose impact on ideas and artistic value of the art practice.

In this way, Warhol painted images of catastrophes in bright colors ( Red Car Crash , Purple Jumping Man , Orange Disaster ), because they showed both the horror of the event in the picture and its media value as the way they were downplayed in the media. By making paintings of these "random" newspaper clippings Warhol turned them into memorials of personal tragedies. They show a personal experience and provide social commentary in a time when the media has grown in relevance.

On August 4, 1962 died Marilyn Monroe , Warhol after a large series of silkscreen portraits made ​​of her, on the grounds of an old photo. In the portraits he sometimes uses muted colors, or even fluorescent colors for example, to accentuate the mouth or gold paint.

In April 2012 a youth of twelve year old Warhol was discovered. The drawing was found hidden in the list of another painting that was bought by the finder at a flea market in Las Vegas. [1]

Movies Edit ]Edit

In addition to practicing various art forms such as painting, photography, drawing and sculpture, Warhol was a prolific filmmaker. Between 1963 and 1968 he made over a hundred films, of which 60 are accessible. The films are similar to his paintings, which also exhibit many repetitions, and subtle variations of image. In the seventies Warhol banned the distribution of his films, but in the 80s he gave after much insistence permission to restore the films.

In many of his films, the usual projection speed was reduced from 24 frames to 16 frames per second. This is slightly different than the usual slow-motion, in which the film is correctly recorded, at higher speed and spun at normal speed.By the technique of Warhol individual images get more emphasis.

One of his most famous films, and his first, Sleep (1963), shows eight hours a sleeping man, John Giorno , with whom he had a relationship. Warhol filmed each about three hours, until five o'clock in the morning the sun rose. Filming lasted a month. Blow Job (1963) is a constant close-up of the face of a man (DeVeren Bookwalter) outside image orally is satisfied. According to Gerard Malanga was in the invisible role of the poet and filmmaker Willard Maas active, though Warhol this in his memoirs ( Popism gave) a different reading. The film Kiss (1963) shows for 55 minutes close-ups of kissing couples.

In 1964, Warhol made ​​a 99-minute portrait of the famous curator of the Metropolitan Museum of Art , Henry Geldzahler . During the shooting Warhol just walked away. The film is easy to see how Geldzahler was bored and was uncomfortable with the camera. At the end of the film it is completely collapsed. Also dates from 1964 film Eat with Warhol's colleague and friend Robert Indiana , who is very quiet and close-up mushroom'm eating.

Another film, Empire (1964), consists of an eight-hour shot of the Empire State Building in New York City at twilight. Warhol movie Vinyl is an adaptation of the dystopian Anthony Burgess novel A Clockwork Orange . Further movies pictures improvised encounters of Factory regulars as Brigid Berlin , Viva, Edie Sedgwick , Candy Darling, Holly Woodlawn, Ondine , Nico , and Jackie Curtis. In the film Camp inside the subculture legendary artist appears Jack Smith .

Many famous visitors to the factory, in the period 1963-1966 to put the camera and filmed for 2 minutes and 45 seconds, the length of the standard camera roll. Usually, static portraits. The movies slower turning the expressions of the faces are magnified. The result of these recordings are approximately 500 films by Warhol Screen Tests mentioned. Among portrayed his movie star Dennis Hopper and pop star Lou Reed . The films were mounted in various compositions and shown in exhibitions of Warhol and movie houses.

Warhol's most successful film was Chelsea Girls (1966), the film was innovative because it consisted of two simultaneously projected 16 mm. film roll with different stories. From the projection booth, the sound for a film was increased to clarify that while the story was reduced, and the other film roles were reversed. This method of duplication of the image used in Warhol also be silk-screen printing of the beginning of the sixties. The influence of the film with multiple simultaneous layers and stories is noticeable in modern productions Timecode by Mike Figgis and, indirectly, the first season of 24 .

Other important films are My Hustler (1965) and Lonesome Cowboys (1968), a gay pseudo-western. " 'Blue Movie , a film in which Warhol "superstar" Viva has sex with a man for 33 minutes was Warhol's last home movie. Viva knew, after the film had caused due to hold. The liberal approach to sexuality, public showing of this film in contact with a scandal The film became, for the first time in 30 years, re-screened in 2005 in New York.

After Warhol was shot by Valerie Solanas on June 3, 1968, he retired as a director and left making movies over to Paul Morrissey. This sent the approach of the Warhol films more and more in the direction of normal B-movies with a clear story (eg: Flesh , Trash and Heat ). These films and films made ​​later Blood for Dracula and Flesh for Frankenstein were much more normal than anything Warhol had made. ever own directorial The star in this film was Joe Dallesandro, who was actually a Morrissey star rather than a real Andy Warhol superstar .

Another film that much furore as Warhol film called Bad . This film was actually directed by Jed Johnson . The stars of this movie were Carroll Baker and Perry King . To increase the success of the later films earlier avant-garde films from circulation was around 1972 though Warhols' achieved.

Warhol produced from 1979 to 1987 the artistic concept for a series of television programs, 42 in total, which were broadcast by commercial stations.

Warhol was a dream of making a Hollywood movie but he never arrived.

Filmography edit ]Edit

ExpandAn (incomplete) list of movies ===Music Edit ]===

In the sixties Warhol discovered the group The Velvet Underground and took them to one of his projects. He was the producer of their first album The Velvet Underground and Nico , and also designed the album artwork for. His real share in the production finally came down to was that he paid for the studio time. After the first album, Warhol and band leader was Lou Reed 's increasingly disagree about the direction the band should go out. The contact between the two faded.

Warhol designed the cover illustration for the Rolling Stones album Sticky Fingers (1971) and Love You Live (1977). In 1975 was asked to make Stones singer several portraits of Warhol Mick Jagger .

In 1990, Lou Reed and took John Cale 's album Songs for Drella on. One of Warhol's nicknames was Drella , a combination of Dracula and Cinderella (Cinderella). On Drella Reed apologizes compared to Warhol.

Warhol was friends with many musicians including Bob Dylan , John Lennon and Jim Morrison . He designed the cover of Lennon's Menlove Avenue (posthumously in 1986). Warhol appeared as a bartender in the video for the single The Cars- Hello Again , and a Curiosity Killed The Cat-video for their Misfit -single. Both videos were produced by Warhol's production company. He had a soft spot 'for Nick Rhodes of Duran Duran , who he met relatively frequently.

Other media edit ]Edit

Although Andy Warhol achieved fame with most of his paintings and films, he was active in various other media, such as:

  • Fashion - From Warhol is known that he has said that he would rather buy a dress and hangs on the wall, then it hang (a painting "I'd rather buy a dress and put it up on the wall, than put a painting , would not you? " ). One of his most famous superstars, Edie Sedgwick , wanted to be a fashion designer, and his good friend Halston was one. Warhol's fashion work includes screen-printed clothing, occasional moonlighting as a catwalk model and books on fashion as well as paintings of fashionable items (shoes).
  • Performances - Warhol and his entourage organized happenings : theatrical multimedia presentations at parties with music, film, slide projections and Gerard Malanga in an S & M outfit with a whip striking. The highlight in this period of Warhol's life was The Exploding Plastic Inevitable .
  • Photography - To produce his silkscreens Warhol self-made photographs or had them make it through others. The photos were usually made ​​with a specific type of Polaroid camera, that this company especially for Warhol continued to produce. The photographic approach to painting and large amounts snapshots , had their effect on artistic photography of those days. Warhol 'late works include sewn together black and white photos.

He also threw anything away, and kept for years everyday objects from his studio in systematically dated boxes, which he called "time capsules".

Museums Edit ]Edit

The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is the largest U.S. museum dedicated to a single artist, it contains more than 12,000 works by Warhol.

The works of Andy Warhol are further include the following museums of modern art to view:

Trivia edit ]Edit

  • One of the most famous quotes from Andy Warhol's In the future everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes. translated: In the future everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes . Afterwards he said about this quote: I'm bored with that line. I never use it anymore. My new line is "In 15 minutes everybody will be famous."
  • In early April 2007 it was announced that the New York collector Jose Mugrabi are 600 Warhols gets rid of $ 1 billion to an unknown sheikh . The sheikh is one intends "Andy Warhol Museum" to be built in Abu Dhabi or Dubai . The family also owns Mugrabi Warhols "Twenty Marilyns" (1962).
  • In Jommekes album '242 ' pudding Queen "is made ​​to Warhol.
  • In Groningen, a night café named after the artist (Warhol night cafe). The café of different art forms are processed in the interior.

References edit ]Edit

Sources edit ]Edit

  • Andy, museum newspaper at the exhibition "Other Voices, Other rooms", Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, 2007.

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