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Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico, or tragic opera in three companies of Gaetano DonizettiSalvatore Cammarano wrote the Italian libretto to the historical novel The Bride of Lammermoor by Walter Scott. It is one of the most important Bel Cantooperas. The premiere took place on september 26, 1835 at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. Donizetti also edited this score to a French version which debuted on August 6, 1839 at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris as Lucie de Lammermoor.


[hide]*1 Historical and literary sources

Historical and literary sources[Edit]Edit

Literary source[Edit]Edit


Walter Scott was often the source for libretti at the romantic composers. Are The Bride of Lammermoor was also for Donizetti opera on several occasions to a modified. In order to make the novel as soon as possible to handle – there served as always have an end date to be achieved-Donizetti and Cammarano probably the libretto by Michele Carafa Le Nozze the Lammermoor used. This opera was performed in Paris six years in advance. It is from this-over the original novel on substantial points truncated-libretto hard to the background of the characters to gauge; even though because in this libretto at performances often denominations are made. The number of characters already had reduced Carafa. Donizetti and Cammarano went further: the whole family Ashton (mother, father, two brothers) was telescoped into a single character: Enrico. Also eliminated the chatty servant (Caleb Balderstone) by Enrico Craigengelt, a sea captain and the threatening with evil intentions and a hidden agenda. Though feuds remained as. Frank Hayston, Lord of Bucklaw, remains virtually unchanged as Arturo. The blind Alice, kluizenaarster an old Prophet with occult habits, is a rather boring as Alisa confidante, that in the French version, therefore, would occur. There are many other elements lost in the libretto from the novel by Scott; as the three witches, who are the cause of the insanity of Lucia.

Historical source[Edit]Edit

What facts is concerned the story on a historical event based: the marriage between Janet Dalrymple and David Dunbar at the time of the religious struggle in England and Scotland at the end of the 17th century. An ambitious mother forced her daughter to marry someone, that the daughter did not see clearly are. This had to be in his wedding night aghast David Dunbar from the bridal suite, there he would be injured seriously by Janet. Incidentally, he was appalled by the beloved by Janet; so it will never become clear if this has been not the attacker of Dunbar.

Added elements[Edit]Edit

Donizetti and have the final adjusted Cammarano. The mysterious disappearance of Edgar (Thu)-he sinks into the roman road in quicksand, as he was on his way to the game – set up differently: the opera ends with a large suicide scene at the tomb of the Ravenswoods. In addition, a ghost, a storm and, in particular, the madness scene of Lucia added. As well as in the novel is the atmosphere dark and menacing. The story (forbidden desire, rivalry of families, the death of two lovers) seems akin to Romeo and Juliet. But Shakespeare offers even optimism, chance of escape (which failed by a mistake in the timing). For Lucia and Edgardo there is no escape but misery, madness and an awful end.

Division Of Roles[Edit]Edit

Role Voice type Premiere cast, 26 september 1835

(Conductor: Donizetti)

Lucia soprano Fanny Tacchinardi Persiani
Enrico Ashton, Lord of Lammermoor, Lucia's brother baritone Domenico Cosselli
Edgardo, Lord of Ravenswood, Lucia's beloved tenor Gilbert Louis Duprez
Lord Arturo Bucklaw, Lucia's bridegroom 's tenor Balestrieri
Raimondo Bidebent, chaplain Bass Carlo Ottolini Porto
Alisa, Lucia's sister mezzo soprano Teresa Zappucci
Normanno, hunting master, vassal of Enrico tenor Rossi Anafesto
Retainers, servants, wedding guests


Main storyline[Edit]Edit

The brother of Lucia, Enrico (Lord of Lammermoor) participated in a targeted political movement against the King. Threatens political and financial destruction. He has decided to marry his sister to Arturo, Lord of Bucklaw. Lucia here knows nothing of, and, worse, Enrico is not aware that his sister has tender feelings for Mr Edgardo of Ravenswood, whose family since as long as one heugt harangued with his. However, when he finds out, are coarse and devious means used to nip in the bud this love.

First company[Edit]Edit

Scene 1[Edit]Edit

The fields around the ruins of Castle Ravenswood. At the end of the 17th century. Short prelude in b-flat (roulades with imminent timpani and horns).

Enrico wanders with hunters around the now fallen to Lammermoor former possession of his enemies. Enrico tells – after departure of the hunters-to its hunting master Normanno, why he is so restless. Edgardo his mortal enemy would from its ruin can laugh, because the political tide is by and only a marriage of his sister Lucy with Arturo Bucklaw Enrico's fate would be able to return.But Lucia refuses. The chaplain Raimundo throws against his sister, that is still too distressed to the death of her mother in order to love to be able to think. Normanno sneers, that Lucia secretly met a young man who has saved her from a runaway bull. After some pressure from Enrico he reveals the identity: her lover turns out Enrico's arch-nemesis: Edgardo of Ravenswood. Enrico (Cruda, funesta hatred for theLarghetto) sings with Normanno and Raimondo are and his sister. The hunters come (Chorus: Come vinti) report that Edgardo is near. Raimondo tries to appease.Enrico however points out that af (cabaletta La pietade in suo favore). "The fire of this miserable couple will be extinguished with blood".

[2]Fanny Tacchinardi Persiani====Scene 2 a[Edit]====

Park of Lammermoor, by a source.

Lucia and her companion Alisa comprehensive harp solo while walking around in anticipation of Edgardo. Lucia ( Regnava nel silenzio(Larghetto):) tells of her shudder from the source: once threw a Ravenswood in the body of a murdered Lammermoor red coloured water in her eyes now. She sees the spirit of the dead woman. (Aria with written-out decorations, which expresses its uncertainty). To forsake her dangerous love on Alisa, Edgardo's fortitude she replies to believe in ((cabaletta): Quando apparition is a warning, and that she must give in). [Note: in the French operation (Lucie de Lammermoor) are both opening Arias – on suggestion of Edgardo – by Donizetti replaced by those of Rosmonda (Rosmonda d'Inghilterra (1834).]

Scene 2 b[Edit]Edit

Edgardo comes – rushed-on. Alisa engages the lookout.

France tells Edgar that he leaves every morning to guard against the party of Enrico, but that he will ask her hand first at her brother Enrico; Despite the centuries-old feud between the families. Lucia begs him-having regard to the nature of her brother-to keep their love secret. But he is on the oath at the tomb of his father required to avenge the family honour. Lucia calms him and they shall exchange each other's eternal wedding rings to seal out solemnly, and to regard each other as each other for married. There follows a melodic duet (Verranno a te sull'aure); This melody appears as a central theme in the madness scene when they turn her marriage to Edgardo reminds)

Second company[Edit]Edit

First play a[Edit]Edit

The leave of Enrico on Lammermoor.

Enrico worried with Normanno or Lucia Arturo arranged marriage will distort. Normanno, however, has letters from Edgardo intercepted and itself a letter in together, as if Edgardo also loves another woman. Lucia comes – after the departure of Normanno-to greet Arturo-listless inside. She answers to his question (Appressati..), which he very well why they are so pale (pallor funesto.: Il Duetto.) He wants to see her married properly with Arturo; She considers herself as married to Edgardo. Enrico gives her the (counterfeit) letter of Edgardo. He wants them Edgardo forget and Arturo marries. She is shocked and wants only death. With the sounds of the welcoming of Arturo in the background puts Enrico hard explains that with the death of William III he will have to establish the Catholic party of the Stuarts. That is only possible if they marry Arturo. Otherwise she is guilty of his death by the executioner.

Scene 1 b[Edit]Edit

Lucia and the chaplain Raimondo; This scene often lapses, but to save crumbling resistance of Lucia to understand this scene is essential.

Raimondo know of intercepting the letters of Edgardo, but not of the forgery by Normanno: he is convinced of the infidelity of Edgardo. He argues that the changing of rings as marriage is invalid for God. He points her on her obligations to her deceased mother and her brother (aria: Ah!, cedi, cedi): they will find her reward in heaven.

Scene 2 a[Edit]Edit

Reception hall of Lammermoor Castle

[3]19th-century cartoon sextet, Lucia di Lammermoor

As an exciting interlude - unisonChoir (d'immenso giubilo Per te) sing Arturo-smug-that with his coming home the problems will be resolved. Enrico explains sensitive to Lucia's sadness: her mother is dead. Arturo calls rumors about the love of Edgardo for Lucia; but Lucia itself comes in. The marriage contract guard and half in her death sentence swoon draws Lucia what calls it. Then suddenly a tumult: Edgardo comes in. Stunned silence and then: If the final opening of the famous Sextet (in Des) by Lucia, Edgardo, Enrico, Arturo, Raimundo, Alisa and choir (Chi mi frena..) In one to two times slowly building crescendo is the shock of Edgardo's entry to a wide range of conflicting emotions spun out. Any sings of from its position of what animates him on this mind-boggling moment: Lucia in all States; Raimondo has pity on her; Arturo and Enrico threaten Edgardo to leave the property to sword;Edgardo Raimondo allays any Eventually demands his woman on. to lay down their arms. Here is here to met. Edgardo allays that Lucia his wife is, which Raimondo the marriage contract shows. On Lucia's answer, that they indeed signed off his ring, has trampled this jerks, Edgardo and cursed (preliminary stretta) the moment he fell in love with. Enrico, Arturo, the guests ask him directly to leave. Lucia falls to her knees and begs for salvation.Edgardo and agrees to a fight.

In this stormy final scene (final concertato) returns in the quieter between game (tempo di mezzo) the melody of the conversation between Enrico and Arturo back. This what "awkward attempt at a civilized conversation" becomes rough interrupted, because Raimondo the contract presents. Lucia demonstrates her confusion with vague allusions to earlier melodies around the signing of the marriage contract the curse of Edgardo brings the fast part (stretta) (in D) on steam, and there follows the usual work: a insisting unison by Enrico (Esci fuggi) and his followers; a (unisonchorus with sung in octave ) phrases of regret and repentance of Edgardo and Lucia. It runs out on an emphatic coda.

[4]San Carlo theater in Naples===Third party company[Edit]===

Scene 1[Edit]Edit

The dilapidated Hall of Ravenswood Castle.

This scene is deleted often, when everything on the soprano is concentrated. In the middle of the 19th century, this Tower scene right to the dramatic highlights included.

Edgardo hopes that the furious storm around his Tower predicts the end of the world. Enrico enters, boasting, that Lucia just now the honeymoon leave within goes, he challenges him to a duel the next day in the cemetery of Ravenswood. Duet: Qui del padre.

Scene 2[Edit]Edit

Reception hall of Lammermoor Castle

The guests celebrating the wedding of Lucia (Chorus: D'immenso giubilo). This is suddenly interrupted by Raimondo, which (Larghetto: dalla Stanze ove Lucia..) says that he heard a cry from the bridal suite and there is breaking in. There he found a bloodied dagger and Lucia with Arturo death to him with a smile, who asked where her groom was.

Madness Scene Under the guidance of a flute (which melodies from the scene at the source and the changing of the rings plays) comes on in a bloodied white dress. She thinks (Il dolce suono) that her marriage with Edgardo is imminent. She thinks back to the spirit – the melodies quoting-which they saw at the source (cit.: Regnavo nel silenzio) and parting with Edgardo (cit.: Verranno a te). This Larghetto has the form of a theme and variations, culminating today in a long cadenza for flute and soprano. Donizetti has this Cadence not written out. Edgardo himself, which was known for its improvisations that would solve itself on the spot.

The following is a passage from which portions be deleted in many versions: Enrico enters and is furious at Lucia. Raimondo points out to him, that his sister has and that it is the victim of his cruelty. Full of remorse he listens to Lucia, who hopes now they soon dies in heaven with Edgardo United to be (cabaletta: Spargi d'amari pianto). Alisa and Raimondo Lucia to leave Enrico to bring her. Raimondo put Normanno, which this has caused bloodshed, on his number.

Third stage[Edit]Edit

Cemetery of Ravenswood

[5]scene picture of Bagnara (1844?)

Edgardo – too early for the appointment – welcomes the death by the sword of Enrico. He imagines Lucia for as beautiful bride in heaven. He bids farewell to the Earth. Lucia would have to respect the tomb of her beloved (Larghetto: Fra poco me.) Choir and rise of the servants of Lammermoor: the day started so well, but ended in misery. Edgardo learns that Lucia is dying and to seek from him. A death knell sounds. Raimondo likes Edgardo against if he to Lucia likes: Lucia is already dead. Edgardo think of Lucia in heaven: there shall they are United. ( Tu che a Dio: cabaletta; the melody is divided between cello and tenor). He is determined to die. Raimondo and the others try to stop him, but he stabs himself with his own dagger down.

Edgardo dies with Lucia in his thoughts.

Selected recordings[Edit]Edit

Year Division Of Roles

(Lucia, Edgardo, Enrico, Raimondo)


opera company and Orchestra

1939 Lina Pagliughi,

Giovanni Malipiero, Giuseppe Manacchini, Luciano Neroni

Ugo Tansini,

RAI Orchestra and chorus

Audio CD: Naxos

Cat: 8.110150

1952 Maria Callas,

Giuseppe di Stefano, Piero Campolonghi, Roberto Silva

Guido Picco,

Palacio de Bellas ArtesMexico City Chorus and Orchestra of the Palacio de Bellas Artes

Audio CD: Melodram

Cat: 1078712 (live performance)

1953 Maria Callas,

Giuseppe di Stefano, Tito Gobbi, Raffaele Arié

Tullio Serafin,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Teatro alla Scala

Audio CD: EMI
1955 Maria Callas,

Giuseppe di Stefano, Rolando Panerai, Nicola Zaccaria

Herbert von Karajan,

Rias Sinfonie Orchester, choir of the Teatro alla Scala

Audio CD: Melodram

Cat: 26004 (live performance)

1957 Roberta Peters,

Jan Peerce, Philip Maero, Giorgio Tozzi

Erich Leinsdorf,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Opera Roma

Audio CD: RCA Victor (Living Stereo)

ASIN: B000003G44

1957 Leyla Gencer,

Giacinto Prandelli, Nino Carta, Antonio Massaria

Oliviero de Fabritiis,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Teatro Verdi (Trieste)

Audio CD: Arkadia
1959 Maria Callas,

Ferruccio Tagliavini, Piero Cappuccilli, Bernard Ładysz

Tullio Serafin,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Teatro alla Scala

Audio CD: EMI
1959 Joan Sutherland,

Jao Gibin, John Shaw, Joseph Rouleau

Tullio Serafin,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Royal Opera House Covent Garden

Audio CD: Golden Melodram

(live performance)

1961 Joan Sutherland,

Renato Cioni, Robert Merrill, Cesare Siepi

John Pritchard,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Accademia di Santa Cecilia

Audio CD: Decca Records
1965 Anna Moffo,

Carlo Bergonzi, Mario Sereni, Ezio Flagello

Georges Pretre,

RCA Italiana Orchestra and chorus

Audio CD: RCA
1970 Beverly Sills,

Carlo Bergonzi, Piero Cappuccilli, Justino Diaz

Thomas Schippers,

London Symphony Orchestra

Audio CD: Westminster
1971 Joan Sutherland,

Luciano Pavarotti, Sherrill Milnes, Nicolai Ghiaurov

Richard Bonynge,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Royal Opera House Covent Garden

Audio CD: Decca

Cat: 4101932

1976 Montserrat Caballé,

José Carreras, Vicente Sardinero, Samuel Ramey

Jesús López-Cobos Audio CD: Philips
1982 Joan Sutherland,

Alfredo Kraus, Pablo Elvira, Paul Plishka

Richard Bonynge dvd: Deutsche Grammophon
1983 June Anderson,

Alfredo Kraus, Lorenzo Saccomani, Agostino Ferrin

Gianluigi Gelmetti,

Chorus and Orchestra of the Teatro Comunale di Firenze

Audio CD: LS

Cat: 1117

1986 Joan Sutherland,

Richard Greager, Malcolm Donnelly, Clifford Grant

Richard BonyngeAustralian Opera,

Elizabethan Sydney Orchestra and Australian Opera Chorus

dvd: Image Entertainment

Cat: 5789RA

1990 Studer,

Plácido Domingo, Juan Pons, Samuel Ramey

Ion Marin,

London Symphony Orchestra Ambrosian Opera Chorus

Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon

Cat: 4594912

1998 Andrea Rost,

Bruce Ford, Anthony Michaels-Moore, Alastair Miles

Charles Mackerras,

The Hanover Band and the London Voices

Audio CD: Sony Classical

Cat: 63174

2002 Natalie Dessay,

Marcello Alvarez, Ludovic Tézier, Nicolas Cavallier

Pidò Shila,

Orchestre et Chœur de l 'Opéra National de Lyon

French version

CD: Celestial Audio CA 341

2002 Natalie Dessay,

Roberto Alagna, Ludovic Tézier, Nicolas Cavallier

Pidò Shila,

Orchestre et Chœur de l 'Opéra National de Lyon

French version

CD: EMI Classics Cat: 0724354552823

2002 Patrizia Ciofi,

Roberto Alagna, Ludovic Tézier, Nicolas Cavallier

Pidò Shila,

Orchestre et Chœur de l 'Opéra National de Lyon

French version

dvd Video: TDK

Performance history and reception[Edit]Edit

The premiere was a great success. In this "interregnum" of about ten years-between Bellini (who had died four days before the premiere) and the emerging Verdi -the leading opera composer Donizetti was global. Lucia di Lammermoor was within a few years in all major opera centers of the old and new world intensified. A long line of great Sopranos has created a furore with the lead. In our time should be called Maria Callas , who lived with her dramatic soprano has given brilliant performances. Originally a lighter voice than that of Donizetti will to Callas have thought.Also Joan Sutherland and Renata Scotto should be called. Montserrat Caballé also has a wonderful version created later added, with much of the decorations have been removed. A lot depends on personal taste here.

Unfortunately, the Lucia di Lammermoor often brought with large denominations. For example, and was often the Tower scene or even the graveyard scene omitted. This masterpiece of Donizetti degenerates to a vehicle for Sopranos to show their trick. The complete implementation is one of the most balanced operas: in fact, all roles tricky, but in terms of dramatically showing grateful.

Some observations on the performance of De Nederlandse Opera in november 2007 (and played again in March/april 2014):

  • Donizetti had the obligatory accompanying party to the waanzinscene with a armonica originally either a glass harmonica (which he had previously done at Elisabetta al castello di Kenilworth). Donizetti had already led him to the performances by replaced by a flute. In this implementation of DNO is yet a glass harmonica performed to evoke an uncanny, unearthly atmosphere or enhance.
  • This performance is virtually complete. Well there is chosen to the lock of the second stage in the second act to waanzinscene immediately after the docking.
  • In this direction is the location of the whole first act moved to the bedroom of Lucia. The bed out of the bedroom in the final scene of Lucia comes back as the deathbed, which leave the dead themselves dying next to Edgardo Lucia don't miss this reference to Romeo and Juliet.

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