He studied at the Conservatory in Milan and made his debut in 1900. In 1909 he became conductor at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan. From 1924 he was frequently to be found in the United States, especially at theMetropolitan Opera in New York. He gave premieres of new operas, such as by Howard Hanson (his Merry Mount). In 1935 he returned to Italy, where he led the premieres of operas by Alban Berg for exampleBenjamin Britten and groomed.